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Join date : 2010-10-01

PostSubject: Bird conservation   Fri Oct 01, 2010 6:18 pm

Though human activities have allowed the expansion of a few species, such as the Barn Swallow and European Starling, they have caused population decreases or extinction in many other species. Over a hundred bird species have gone extinct in historical times,[198] although the most dramatic human-caused avian extinctions, eradicating an estimated 7501800 species, occurred during the human colonisation of Melanesian, Polynesian, and Micronesian islands.[199] Many bird populations are declining worldwide, with 1,227 species listed as threatened by Birdlife International and the IUCN in 2009.[200][201]

The most commonly cited human threat to birds is habitat loss.[202] Other threats include overhunting, accidental mortality due to structural collisions or long-line fishing bycatch,[203] pollution (including oil spills and pesticide use),[204] competition and predation from nonnative invasive species,[205] and climate change.

Governments and conservation groups work to protect birds, either by passing laws that preserve and restore bird habitat or by establishing captive populations for reintroductions. Such projects have produced some successes; one study estimated that conservation efforts saved 16 species of bird that would otherwise have gone extinct between 1994 and 2004, including the California Condor and Norfolk Parakeet

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